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Grammatical Framework Bibliography

Aarne Ranta


Publications on GF

In reverse temporal order:

H. Burden and R. Heldal. Natural Language Generation from Class Diagrams. Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Model-Driven Engineering, Verification and Validation (MoDeVVa 2011), Wellington, New Zealand, ACM, 2011. Draft PDF
Using GF to verbalize platform-independent requirement specifications as a part of a software engineering tool chain.

C. España-Bonet, R. Enache, A. Slaski, A. Ranta, L. Màrquez, and M. Gonzàlez. Patent translation within the MOLTO project. Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Patent Translation, MT Summit XIII, Xiamen, China, September 23, 2011. PDF
First steps to a hybrid GF-SMT system.

Seyed M. Montazeri, Nivir Roy, and Gerardo Schneider. From Contracts in Structured English to CL Specifications. 5th International Workshop on Formal Languages and Analysis of Contract-Oriented Software (FLACOS'11), volume 68 of EPTCS, pages 55-69, Málaga, Spain, 22-23 September 2011. PDF/DOI
Formal analysis of contracts written in controlled English.

S. Virk, M. Humayoun, and A. Ranta. An Open-Source Punjabi Resource Grammar. Proceedings of RANLP-2011, Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing, Hissar, Bulgaria, 12-14 September, 2011. pp. 70-76. PDF
Punjabi syntax, building on Humayoun and Ranta 2010.

D. Dannélls, M. Damova, R.Enache, M. Chechev. A Framework for Improved Access to Museum Databases in the Semantic Web. Proceedings of the Workshop on Language Technologies for Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage, RANLP-2011, Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing, Hissar, Bulgaria, 12-14 September, 2011, pp 8-15 PDF
Representing and verbalizing in GF of an Cultural Heritage ontology.

A. Ranta. Translating between Language and Logic: What Is Easy and What is Difficult? In N. Bjørner and V. Sofronie-Stokkermans (eds.), CADE-23. Automated Deduction, LNCS/LNAI 6803, pp. 5-25, 2011. PDF at Springer Draft PDF
Invited talk at the CADE conference, showing how GF can help writing natural language interfaces to proof systems, and also exploring how to make the language richer, e.g. how to get from "for all numbers x, x is even or x is odd" to "every number is even or odd".

A. Ranta. Grammatical Framework: Programming with Multilingual Grammars, CSLI Publications, Stanford, 2011. Book web page
Meant as the standard reference and textbook on GF.

O. Caprotti, K. Angelov, R. Enache, T. Hallgren, A. Ranta. The MOLTO Phrasebook. Swedish Language Technology Conference SLTC 2010. PDF
Tourist Phrasebook grammar, available in 14 European languages.

G. Détrez and R. Enache. A Framework for Multilingual Applications on the Android Platform Swedish Language Technology Conference SLTC 2010. PDF
A description of the Java implementation of the GF runtime system, which makes it possible to create grammar-based applications running on an Android phone.//

Normunds Gruzitis and Guntis Barzdins. Towards a More Natural Multilingual Controlled Language Interface to OWL, 9th International Conference on Computational Semantics (IWCS), pp. 335-339, 2011. PDF
Access to ontologies in English and Latvian.

M. Humayoun and A. Ranta. Developing Punjabi Morphology, Corpus and Lexicon. The 24th Pacific Asia conference on Language, Information and Computation (PACLIC24), 2010.
Yet another South-East Asian language, spoken by 88 million people.

J. Camilleri, Gordon J. Pace, and Mike Rosner. Playing Nomic using a Controlled Natural Language. CNL 2010, Controlled Natural Language, Marettimo, 2010.
Using GF for defining the rules of a game.

R. Enache and K. Angelov Typeful Ontologies with Direct Multilingual Verbalization. CNL 2010, Controlled Natural Language, Marettimo, 2010.
Investigating the benefits of using GF as a language for representing ontologies. PDF

S. Virk, M. Humayoun, and A. Ranta. An Open Source Urdu Resource Grammar. Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Asian Language Resources (Coling 2010 workshop), 2010.
The national language of Pakistan, spoken by 60 million people; almost the same as Hindi.

A. Ranta, K. Angelov, and T. Hallgren. Tools for multilingual grammar-based translation on the web. Proceedings of the ACL 2010 System Demonstrations, ACM Digital Library, 2010. PDF
An overview of GF for developers and users of translation systems.

D. Dannélls and J. Camilleri. Verb Morphology of Hebrew and Maltese - Towards an Open Source Type Theoretical Resource Grammar in GF. Proceedings of the Language Resources (LRs) and Human Language Technologies (HLT) for Semitic Languages Status, Updates, and Prospects, LREC-2010 Workshop, Malta, pp. 57-61. 2010. PDF
A study of Semitic non-concatenative morphology from the GF point of view.

M. Humayoun and C. Raffalli. MathNat - Mathematical Text in a Controlled Natural Language. Special issue: Natural Language Processing and its Applications. Journal on Research in Computing Science, Volume 46. 2010.
Natural language interface to a proof system, implemented in GF.

D. Dannélls. Discourse Generation from Formal Specifications Using the Grammatical Framework, GF. Special issue: Natural Language Processing and its Applications. Journal on Research in Computing Science (RCS), volume 46. pp. 167-178, 2010.
Interfacing GF with ontology, with a natural language generation perspective.

R. Enache, A. Ranta, and K. Angelov. An Open-Source Computational Grammar of Romanian. A. Gelbukh (ed.), CiCLING-2010, LNCS 6008, 2010.
A Romance language different enough not to follow the Romance functor.

K. Angelov and A. Ranta. Implementing Controlled Languages in GF. N. Fuchs (ed.), CNL-2009 Controlled Natural Languages, LNCS/LNAI 5972, 2010.

K. Angelov, B. Bringert and A. Ranta. PGF: A Portable Run-time Format for Type-theoretical Grammars, Journal of Logic, Language and Information, 19(2), pp. 201-228, 2009. SpringerLink

A. Ranta. The GF Resource Grammar Library. Linguistic Issues in Language Technology, 2 (2), 2009. PDF
A systematic presentation of the library from the linguistic point of view.

A. Ranta. Grammatical Framework: A Multilingual Grammar Formalism, Language and Linguistics Compass, Vol. 3, on-line 2009.
An overview of GF for readers with a general academic brackground.

A. Ranta and K. Angelov. Implementing Controlled Languages in GF. CNL-2009, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 448, on-line, 2009.
Makes a case for using GF in controlled language implementation, illustrated by Attempto Controlled English ported to French, German, and Swedish; longer version in 2010.

A. Ranta. Grammars as Software Libraries. In Y. Bertot, G. Huet, J-J. Lévy, and G. Plotkin (eds.), From Semantics to Computer Science, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 281-308, 2009. pdf (preliminary version)
Grammar-libraries from the software engineering point of view, with an example application to mathematical language.

K. Angelov. Incremental Parsing in Parallel Multiple Context-Free Grammars. EACL 2009.
Describes the algorithm used in parsing with GF.

A. Ranta, B. Bringert, and K. Angelov. The GF Grammar Development Environment. System demo. Proceedings of EACL-2009, 2009. PDF
An overview of GF from the grammarian's point of view.

B. Bringert, K. Angelov, and A. Ranta. Grammatical Framework Web Service, System demo. Proceedings of EACL-2009, 2009. PDF
An overview of how to build web services on top of PGF using the Google Web Toolkit.

A. Ranta and K. Angelov. Implementing Controlled Languages in GF, To appear in the proceedings of CNL-2009, LNCS, Springer, 2009.
On the use of GF for controlled languages, exemplified by an implementation of Attempto Controlled English then ported to three other language.

R. Cooper and A. Ranta. Natural Languages as Collections of Resources. In Language in Flux: Dialogue Coordination, Language Variation, Change, ed. by R. Cooper and R. Kempson, pp. 109-120. London: College Publications, 2008.
The resource grammar idea applied to language learning and evolution.

Moisés Salvador Meza Moreno and B. Bringert. Interactive Multilingual Web Applications with Grammatical Framework. In B. Nordström and A. Ranta (eds), Advances in Natural Language Processing (GoTAL 2008), LNCS/LNAI 5221, Springer, 2008.
Shows how GF compiled to JavaScript is used in dynamic multilingual web pages.

Peter Ljunglöf and Staffan Larsson. A grammar formalism for specifying ISU-based dialogue systems. In B. Nordström and A. Ranta (eds), Advances in Natural Language Processing (GoTAL 2008), LNCS/LNAI 5221, Springer, 2008. pdf
Explains how GoDiS dialogue systems are specified by GF grammars.

K. Angelov. Type-Theoretical Bulgarian Grammar. In B. Nordström and A. Ranta (eds), Advances in Natural Language Processing (GoTAL 2008), LNCS/LNAI 5221, Springer, 2008.
Explains the implementation of a Bulgarian resource grammar in GF.

B. Bringert. High-precision Domain-specific Interlingua-based Speech Translation with Grammatical Framework. Coling 2008 Workshop on Speech Translation for Medical and Other Safety-Critical Applications, Manchester, UK, August 23, 2008.
Shows how to build spoken language translators based on GF grammars and their compilation to Nuance.

A. Ranta. How predictable is Finnish morphology? An experiment on lexicon construction. In J. Nivre, M. Dahllöf and B. Megyesi (eds), Resourceful Language Technology: Festschrift in Honor of Anna Sågvall Hein, University of Uppsala, 2008. Available from series homepage
Presents an experiment on smart paradigms in Finnish.

A. Ranta. Example-based grammar writing. To appear in L. Borin and S. Larsson (eds), Festschrift for Robin Cooper, 2007.
Presents and discusses the ideas of grammar composition and example-based grammar writing.

B. Bringert. Rapid Development of Dialogue Systems by Grammar Compilation. 8th SIGdial Workshop on Discourse and Dialogue, Antwerp, Belgium, September 1-2, 2007. pdf
Shows how to build a web-based spoken dialogue system by generating VoiceXML and JavaScript.

A. El Dada and A. Ranta. Implementing an Open Source Arabic Resource Grammar in GF. In M. Mughazy (ed), Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics XX. Papers from the Twentieth Annual Symposium on Arabic Linguistics, Kalamazoo, March 26 John Benjamins Publishing Company. 2007.
An outline of the Arabic resource grammar project, focusing on linguistic aspects.

A. El Dada. Implementation of the Arabic Numerals and their Syntax in GF. Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages: Common Issues and Resources, ACL-2007 Workshop, June 28, 2007, Prague. 2007.
A case study with the resource grammar, focusing on the morphosyntax and agreement of constructions with numerals.

A. Ranta. Modular Grammar Engineering in GF. Research on Language and Computation, 5:133-158, 2007. Draft available as pdf.
Adapts library-based software engineering methods to grammar writing and introduces the module system of GF.

A. Ranta. The GF Grammar Compiler. Workshop on New Directions in Type-theoretic Grammars, Dublin, August 2007 (ESSLLI workshop). 2007. pdf
Describes the compilation of GF source code to lower-level run-time formats.

M. Humayoun, H. Hammarström, and A. Ranta. Urdu Morphology, Orthography and Lexicon Extraction. CAASL-2: The Second Workshop on Computational Approaches to Arabic Script-based Languages, July 21-22, 2007, LSA 2007 Linguistic Institute, Stanford University. 2007.
Fairly complete open-source Urdu morphology and elemenraty syntax in GF.

N. Perera and A. Ranta. Dialogue System Localization with the GF Resource Grammar Library. SPEECHGRAM 2007: ACL Workshop on Grammar-Based Approaches to Spoken Language Processing, June 29, 2007, Prague. 2007. pdf
An experiment in porting an in-car dialogue system from two to six languages.

B. Bringert. Speech Recognition Grammar Compilation in Grammatical Framework SPEECHGRAM 2007: ACL Workshop on Grammar-Based Approaches to Spoken Language Processing, June 29, 2007, Prague. 2007.
Generation of speech recognition language models from GF in several formats: GSL (Nuance), SRGS, JSGF, and HTK SLF, with embedded semantic interpretation.

A. Ranta. Features in Abstract and Concrete Syntax. The 2nd International Workshop on Typed Feature Structure Grammars, Tartu, 24 May 2007 (NODALIDA workshop). 2007. pdf
Explores the design choices of incorporating features in a GF-like grammar, with comparisons to feature-based unification grammars.

O. Caprotti and M. Seppälä. Multilingual Delivery of Online Tests in mathematics. Proceedings of Online Educa Berlin 2006. 29 November - 1 December 2006. Berlin, Germany. 2006. pdf
This papers shows screenshots of multilingual generation in the WebALT project, using GF and the resource grammar library.

J. Khegai. Language engineering in Grammatical Framework (GF). Phd thesis, Computer Science, Chalmers University of Technology, 2006. pdf
Collection of articles and technical reports on multilingual authoring and the Russian resource grammar.

B. Bringert and A. Ranta. A Pattern for Almost Compositional Functions. ICFP 2006, The 11th ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Functional Programming, Portland, Oregon, September 18-20, 2006, 2006. pdf.
A method of generic programming useful for compiler construction and transfer-based translation.

M. Forsberg, H. Hammarstrom, and A. Ranta. Morphological Lexicon Extraction from Raw Text Data. FinTAL 2006, Turku, August 23-25, 2006. Springer LNCS/LNAI 4139, pp. 488-499, 2006.
A method for automatical production of morphological lexica based on inflection engines such as those of GF resource grammar library.

A. Ranta. Type Theory and Universal Grammar. Philosophia Scientiae, Constructivism: Mathematics, Logic, Philosophy and Linguistics, cahier spécial 6, pp. 115-131, 2006.
A philosophical study of the medieval thesis that grammar is the same in all languages and the difference is only in words.

J. Khegai. GF parallel resource grammars and Russian. In proceedings of ACL2006 (The joint conference of the International Committee on Computational Linguistics and the Association for Computational Linguistics) (pp. 475-482), Sydney, Australia, July 2006.
Gives an outline of the Russian resource grammar project.

J. Khegai. Grammatical Framework (GF) for MT in sublanguage domains. Proceedings of 11th Annual conference of the European Association for Machine Translation, , Oslo. pp. 95-104, 2005.
Shows how GF is used in controlled language translation.

W. Ng'ang'a. Multilingual content development for eLearning in Africa. eLearning Africa: 1st Pan-African Conference on ICT for Development, Education and Training. 24-26 May 2006, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2006. pdf
Presents a programme for producing educational material in African languages via multilingual generation in GF.

R. Jonson. Generating statistical language models from interpretation grammars in dialogue system. In Proceedings of EACL'06, Trento, Italy. 2006.
Uses GF grammars to generate statistical language models for speech recognition.

A. El Dada and A. Ranta. Arabic Resource Grammar. Arabic Language Processing (JETALA), 5-6 June 2006, IERA, Rabat, Morocco, 2006.
An outline of the Arabic resource grammar project, focusing on software aspects.

D. A. Burke and K. Johannisson. Translating Formal Software Specifications to Natural Language. A Grammar-Based Approach. In P. Blache, E. Stabler, J. Busquets and R. Moot (eds), Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics (LACL 2005), Springer LNAI 3402, pp. 51-66, 2005.
A paper explaining how a multilingual GF grammar is completed with Natural Language Generation techniques to improve text quality.

B. Bringert, R. Cooper, P. Ljunglöf, A. Ranta, Multimodal Dialogue System Grammars. Proceedings of DIALOR'05, Ninth Workshop on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue, Nancy, France, June 9-11, 2005, 2005. pdf.
Shows how mouse clicks can be integrated in GF grammars alongside with speech input.

K. Johannisson, Formal and Informal Software Specifications. PhD thesis, Computer Science, Göteborg University, 2005. []
Collection of articles in the GF-KeY project, with an introduction.

P. Ljunglöf. Expressivity and Complexity of the Grammatical Framework. PhD thesis, Computer Science, Göteborg University, 2004. pdf
Language-theoretical study of GF and its parsing problem.

A. Ranta. Grammatical Framework: A Type-Theoretical Grammar Formalism. Journal of Functional Programming, 14(2), pp. 145-189, 2004. Draft available as ps.gz.
Theoretical paper explaining the GF formalism and its implementation. The standard reference on GF, but doesn't cover the module system.

A. Ranta. Computational semantics in type theory. Mathematics and Social Sciences, 165, pp. 31-57, 2004. Draft available as pdf.
// Shows how Montague-style grammars are implemented in GF and extends// this to type-theoretical grammars for anaphoric expressions.

H. Hammarström and A. Ranta. Cardinal Numerals Revisited in GF. Workshop on Numerals in the World's Languages. Dept. of Linguistics Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, 2004.
An overview of the numeral grammar project, covering 88 languages.

A. Ranta. Grammatical Framework Tutorial. In A. Beckmann and N. Preining, editors, ESSLLI 2003 Course Material I, Collegium Logicum, volume V, pp. 1-86. Kurt Gödel Society, Vienna, 2004.
A revised version of the on-line GF tutorial, v1.0.

J. Khegai and A. Ranta. Building and Using a Russian Resource Grammar in GF. In A. Gelbukh (ed), Intelligent Text Processing and Computational Linguistics (CICLing-2004), Seoul, Korea, February 2003, Springer LNCS 945, pp. 38-41, 2004. ps.gz.
An introduction to the GF resource grammar project, with Russian as prime example.

A. Ranta and R. Cooper. Dialogue Systems as Proof Editors. Journal of Logic, Language and Information, 13, pp. 225-240, 2004. Conference version (IJCAR/ICoS-3, Siena, June 2001) available as ps.gz. Shows a close analogy between task-oriented dialogue systems and metavariable-based proof editors.

J. Khegai and A. Ranta. Building and Using a Russian Resource Grammar in GF. In A. Gelbukh (ed), Intelligent Text Processing and Computational Linguistics (CICLing-2004), Seoul, Korea, February 2003, Springer LNCS 945, pp. 38-41, 2004. ps.gz.
Explains how the GF GUI is used in syntax editing and discusses how new grammars are created.

R. Hähnle, K. Johannisson, and A. Ranta. An Authoring Tool for Informal and Formal Requirements Specifications. In R. D. Kutsche and H. Weber (eds), ETAPS/FASE-2002: Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering, Springer LNCS, vol. 2306, pp. 233--248, 2002. pdf
Describes a GF-based authoring tool for object-oriented specifications in OCL and English. Carries out in full the work proposed in the position paper (Hähnle & Ranta 2001).

K. Johannisson and A.Ranta, Formal Verification of Multilingual Instructions. Proceedings of the Joint Winter Meeting 2001. Departments of Computer Science and Computer Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology and Göteborg University. 2001. ps.gz.
Instructions for an alarm system in four languages, verified in the proof editor Alfa.

R. Hähnle and A. Ranta, Connecting OCL with the Rest of the World. ETAPS 2001 Workshop on Transformations in UML (WTUML), Genova, 2001. ps.gz.
A position paper explaining how GF can be used to help in object-oriented modelling, with some examples on natural-language interaction with OCL (Object Constraint Language).

T. Hallgren, "The Correctness of Insertion Sort", Manuscript, Chalmers University, Göteborg, 2001. Available in ps
A seven-page text generated by GF-Alfa.

A. Ranta. "Bescherelle bricolé", ps.gz, 2001.
A machine-generated book on French conjugation implemented in GF.

T. Hallgren and A. Ranta, An Extensible Proof Text Editor. In M. Parigot and A. Voronkov (eds), Logic for Programming and Automated Reasoning (LPAR'2000), LNCS/LNAI 1955, pp. 70-84, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 2000. ps.gz.
Describes an interface to the proof editor Alfa written in GF.

M. Dymetman, V. Lux, and A. Ranta, XML and multilingual document authoring: converging trends. Proceedings of the The 18th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING 2000), pp. 243-249, Saarbruecken, 2000. ps.gz.
Relates GF not only with XML but also with definite clause grammars.

P. Mäenpää and A. Ranta. The type theory and type checker of GF. Colloquium on Principles, Logics, and Implementations of High-Level Programming Languages, Workshop on Logical Frameworks and Meta-languages, Paris, 28 September 1999. 1999. ps.gz.
Concise theoretical presentation of GF, using the old notation prior to v0.9.

Background for GF

In alphabetical order:

L. Magnusson. The Implementation of ALF - a Proof Editor based on Martin-Löf's Monomorphic Type Theory with Explicit Substitutions. PhD Thesis, Department of Computing Science, Chalmers University of Technology and Göteborg University, 1994.
Back in 1992 the most wonderful program in the world, ALF is a model that GF directly follows: GF is Yet ALF.

P. Martin-Löf. Intuitionistic Type Theory. Bibliopolis, Naples, 1984.
A very accessible book (if you have access to it!) on type theory directly from the source.

B. Nordström, K. Petersson, and J. Smith. Programming in Martin-Löf's Type Theory: an Introduction. Oxford University Press, 1990. The book is out of print, but a free version can be picked up from
Standard reference on the subject.

A. Ranta. Type Theoretical Grammar. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994.
Monograph on type theory in linguistics. Includes an introduction to type theory. Focused on semantics, in particular anaphora. A first, very rudimentary implementation of linearization in the proof system ALF.

A. Ranta. Syntactic categories in the language of mathematics. In P. Dybjer, B. Nordström, and J. Smith, eds., Types for Proofs and Programs, pp. 162-182, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 996, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1995. ps.gz
Predecessor of GF: grammar defined in type theory and implemented in ALF.

A. Ranta. Context-relative syntactic categories and the formalization of mathematical text. In S. Berardi and M. Coppo, eds., Types for Proofs and Programs, pp. 231-248, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1158, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1996. ps.gz.
Extending the theory of the previous paper. The implementation in ALF eventually became so heavy that the need arose for GF.

A. Ranta. Structures grammaticales dans le français mathématique. Mathématiques, informatique et Sciences Humaines., vol. 138 pp. 5-56 and 139 pp. 5-36, 1997.
A rather comprehensive French grammar presented in a type-theoretical style.

A. Ranta. Syntactic calculus with dependent types. Journal of Logic, Language and Information, vol. 4, pp. 413-431, 1998.
Interprets Lambek Calculus in type theory and defines some extensions.